Thermal anomaly of water

Thermal anomaly of water
Thermal anomaly of water Relative density of water as a function of the temperature
Thermal anomaly of water

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Water has a density anomaly: up to a temperature of 4 °C, water has a negative coefficient of expansion , i.e. it shrinks when warmed. After passing through zero at 4 °C, the coefficient of expansion becomes positive. So the density of water reaches a maximum at 4 °C.

In experiment C1.3.3.1, the density maximum of water is proven by measuring its expansion in a vessel with a riser. Starting from room temperature, the complete setup is cooled down in an ice water bath to about 1 °C under constant stirring, or after cooling in a freezer, it is warmed slowly by the ambient temperature. The level h, in a riser with a cross-sectional area A is measured as a function of the water temperature ϑ. Because the change in volume relative to the total volume V0 is small, the result obtained for density is

Components of equipment sets

1 6675051 Anomaly of water apparatus LD
1 6668451  4  Magnetic stirrer LD
1 666851  4  Stirring magnet, 25 mm x 6 mm Ø, circular LD
1 602725  4  Laboratory dish, 140 mm diam., 900 ml LD
1 665009  4  Funnel PP 75 mm Ø LD
1 667183  4  Rubber tubing Ø 8 mm, t = 2 mm, l = 1m LD
1 608040  8  Stand rod, 60 cm, 12 mm diam. LD
2 666555  4  Universal clamp 0...80 mm LD
2 30109  4  Bosshead S LD
1 30002  4  Stand base, V-shaped, small LD
1 524005W2 Mobile-CASSY 2 WiFi LD
1 529676  4  Temperature probe, NiCr-Ni, 1.5 mm, type K LD
1 666194  4  Protective sleeves for temperature probe, set of 5 LD
1 665009  4  Funnel PP 75 mm Ø LD
1 602011  4  Beaker, Boro 3.3, 400 ml, tall LD
1 666966  4  Spoon-ended spatula polyamid, 180 mm LD
1 ADAHCB3001  4  Precision Balance, 3000 g / 0,1 g LD
1 666003  4  Pipetting ball (Peleus ball) LD
1 6735700  4  Sodium chloride, 250 g LD
0 Additional required:
permanet marker, crushed ice, ruler (30 cm)

Experiment Instructions

PDF (Experiment description) PDF (Experiment description) C1.3.3.1 Thermal anomaly of water
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